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Sampo & Erhardt

Sci-Fi Archives

Visit our archives of the MST3K pages previously hosted by the Sci-Fi Channel's SCIFI.COM.

Goodbye Sci-Fi

Mike Nelson, Kevin Murphy and Bill Corbett reflect on MST3K's final broadcast.

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Episode Guide: 414- Tormented

Movie: (1960) A betrothed jazz pianist believes he’s escaped his troublesome mistress when he fails to save her from a fall. But then he’s visited by her ghost … and a blackmailer.

First shown: 9/26/92
Opening: The bots have set up housekeeping in a ventilation duct
Invention exchange: J&tB demonstrate the Aunt Catherine wheel, while the Mads show off the drinking jacket
Host segment 1: Joel is stuck in ventilation duct, Crow and Tom are no help
Host segment 2: Joel asks the bots which pop singers they’d like to throw from a lighthouse
Host segment 3: Crow and Tom pretend to be bodyless ghosts, but Joel has the last laugh
End: J&tB are depressed so they think happy thoughts and sing a happy song, and does Frank
Stinger: “Tom Stewart killed me!”
1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (227 votes, average: 4.29 out of 5)


• A lot of people say this may be Bert I.’s best, and it may be true. It’s definitely possible to get caught up in this one, as strange as it is. The riffing is good and the host segments are what we’ve come to expect from season four. Definitely a fun episode.
• This episode was included in Rhino’s “The Mystery Science Theater 3000 Collection, Vol. 11.”
• “This is one dark mama-jama of a movie,” Joel says toward the end, and, wow, is it ever. It’s also kinda dull for the first half, although the weirdness overwhelms the blandness in the second half. The script makes some bold narrative choices: nobody can sympathize with the awful, grasping, brassy Vi, and Tom didn’t actively kill her and yet he is still subjected to blackmail and as nightmarish haunting. It seems like Tom’s biggest mistake (not counting killing the hipster) was not immediately reporting Vi’s death.
• Cambot is leaning WAY over the desk to shoot Joel in the opening.
• That’s definitely Mike as “The Aunt Catherine Wheel” and “Uncle Carl,” and it sounds like the same voice as “Grammy Fisher” and “Aunt Ethel” but who is it? Trace, maybe?
• I have a special fondness for the “drinking jacket” invention — I created my own and wore it in the costume contest at the second convention.
• Sadly the “Spalding, old man!” joke is not so funny now.
• Movie comment: They’re sending the invitations only a week before the wedding?
• I’m no expert on men’s calves but certain people of the female persuasion have expressed agreement with Crow’s assessment. Any thoughts on Joel’s calves?
• This episode’s overused joke: “Sessions presents…” Once or twice, okay, but they really beat it to death.
• After segment 2, Joel is so excited he playfully tosses Tom as they reenter the theater (Kevin is apparently laying on his back waiting to catch him).
• Crow goofs: The snack bar chef is NOT Merritt Stone. That’s Gene Roth. But Stone IS in the movie: he’s the clergyman who marries Tom and his bride.
• Callback: “Charles Moffett…” (Ring of Terror)
• Joel suggests this is more depressing than hanging in a bar talking to Neil Young. Why is talking to Neil Young depressing? He seems like a pretty cheerful guy.
• One highlight of the episode is the hilarious “happy thoughts song,” including Frank’s verse at the end. Great stuff. Note that the Prince Roach from episode 408- HERCULES UNCHAINED is on the floor near Frank.
• I’ve always enjoyed Joel’s use of the phrase “K’nerping for moisture.”
• During the song, Tom Servo’s head falls off. They keep going.
• Cast and crew roundup: Of course, many of the people who worked on this worked on other BIG movies, to wit: scriptwriter George Worthing Yates also wrote “Earth vs. The Spider” and “War of the Colossal Beast.” Cinematographer Ernest Laszlo also worked “The Space Children.” Editor John Bushelman worked “War of the Dinosaurs” and “Village of the Giant. Costumer Marge Corso worked on “Earth Vs. the Spider,” “Teenage Caveman,” “Bloodlust” and “The She-Creature.” And of course Albert Glasser did every movie ever. In front of the camera, in addition to Gene Roth and Merritt Stone, there’s Harry Fleer, who was also in “The Unearthly,” Vera Marshe, who was also in “The Space Children” and George Stanley, who was in “Earth Vs. Spider.”
• CreditsWatch: Host segments directed by Kevin Murphy. Tim Scott replaces Brian Wright as audio guy. Andrea DuCane did hair and makeup (the third of three times this season). And it is with this episode that we say farewell to Alexandra Carr, who was with the show since the KTMA days and did just about every job, including writer and performer. Her departure caused a lot of title shifts, but we’ll deal with that in the next episode. “Ammendment” is still spelled wrong.
• Fave riff: “Honey, I’m ho-o-o-o-oh, yeah, you’re dead.” Honorable mention: “C’mon, we’re going bowling.”

143 Replies to “Episode Guide: 414- Tormented”

  1. Clint says:

    I’d be pretty excited to hand out in a bar and talk to Neil Young, but I still get that joke somehow. My question is how Kevin Murphy, who I seem to remember is a Neil Young fan (he sang some Neil Young at his Chicago book signing), would let that joke slide.


  2. Clint says:

    “hand out” = “hang out”


  3. Kenotic says:

    This was one of Mr. BIG’s better movies, and even his little girl was decent to watch. Heck, even the fact that she had a crush on Tom was serious character development for a MST movie.

    I wonder if he was thinking of Blaine, Minnesota — then distant suburb with a distinct “hick” feel to it.


  4. insidemyhead says:

    Yeah I’m pretty sure it was a reference to Blaine, MN. And I consider this one of the few mst3k movies that actually approaches the level of interesting, if not ‘good’; it’s kind of a claustophobia-inducing film, if that makes any sense.


  5. GizmonicTemp says:

    This movie had 576 riffs over 1:14:32 for an RPM of 7.728, which is a paltry rank of #148 all-time.

    The riffing quality was just okay, but what really gets me is the movie itself. Did it creep anyone else out? No, really. What with the vengeful ghost and the murders and Tom almost killing Sandy, freaky.

    Another thing I just realized, the SOL crew make a BUNCH of “Last House on the Left” references, which is so very wrong.


  6. I'm not a medium, I'm a petite says:

    Must disagree with Sampo, being a person of a certain age I couldn’t get enough of the ‘Sessions presents’ bits. Made me nostalgic for the music ( and TV ) of my childhood.

    Must agree with Kenotic, this was actually not a dreadful underlying movie as MST goes. It actually had some depth and, dare I say it, texture.


  7. RCFagnan says:

    Tom didn’t kill Vi, he just didn’t save her. A fine distinction, perhaps, but if it’s good enough for a man dressed in a bat costume, it’s good enough for this movie. By the by, I loved the bit where they’re dropping irritating pop singers from lighthouse. My own suggestion: Every single American Idol contestant EVER.


  8. bigmoneygrip says:

    I’m too lazy to go get the dvd and watch it, but kudos to the guys at MST for edumacating me. There is a scene where a girl (Vi?) tells Tom “you’re the best jazz pianist ever” and Tom Servo says, “much better than _____, ______, and Art Tatum.” Well, I, being a philistine when it comes to jazz, looked up Art Tatum and found out what a great musician he is. Now, he’s one of my favorite listens.


  9. Firebrand says:

    One thing about the Neil Young comment . . . Crow mentions the bar as being Liquor Lyle’s, which still exists in Uptown Minneapolis. A fine place where the elite meet to get plowed. FHM named it one of the best dive bars in America . . .

    P.S. – There is another Blaine Community Theater . . . in Blaine, Minnesota


  10. R.A. Roth says:

    But that’s just it. Tom NEVER MURDERS Vi in the first place! She fell off a balcony and he failed to save her. Check the law books. Nobody has a duty to risk their lives saving a wide hipped jazz singer from certain doom. That’s why Tormented is totally absurd. Is it a ghost story or psychological drama? If it’s a ghost story then why does her floating head not show in the picture when the dippy fiancé looks at it? So I guess it must be a psycho drama. Well, it can’t be if footprints actually appear in the sand. MAKE UP YOUR MIND, MOVIE. STOP TORMENTING ME!



  11. skenderberg says:

    I hated this movie. Okay, Tom didn’t kill Vi, but he acts as though he did, and kills others to prevent them from finding out. He’ll even go so far as to try an throw his eight-year-old sister-in-law off the lighthouse to keep it a secret.

    Yes, the commentary is funny. (e.g., “Of all the lighthouses in all the world, she had to fall off of mine.”) Yes, it’s better than most other films to appear on the show. It’s still not that good. Basically, a lot of unlikable people do despicable things to each other, and it takes a better filmmaker than Mr. I. Gordon to pull that off.


  12. Cubby says:

    Basically, a lot of unlikable people do despicable things to each other,

    In other words, a Coleman Francis plot. Personally, I would love to see what he would have done with this story (plus he would have had at least 10 times the budget!).

    I’ve never cared for the episode, and it’s all because of the movie itself. I couldn’t say how good the commentary is, since I’m only half-listening usually – I lose interest in the movie, and the riffs go unheard. Well, except for the “Sessions Presents!” riffs. I love them, and I think you’re Wrong, Sampo. They didn’t do it enough. ;-)


  13. Maybe I’m the only one to notice this, or maybe not: there’s a hidden Looney Tunes reference at the end of the final segment – when Dr. F. drops a grenade and Frank picks it up, and the grenade explodes after the fadeout and shakes the MST3K Planet logo, along the same lines as the Bob Clampett/Bugs Bunny cartoon “The Old Grey Hare” (1944).


  14. silent037bob says:

    I’ve never really warmed up to this episode at all. Even after a couple viewings, it’s still near the bottom of my episode list. Even all of the funny riffs in the world can’t bring me to give this one a pass and that is a shame because the “Sessions presents…” bits are really funny.


  15. Cabbage Patch Elvis says:

    Okay, it’s a dirty filthy little movie, but to compare it to Coleman Francis? C’mon, that’s harsh! Although I have to say that the relationship between Tom and the little girl borders on something EXTREMELY disturbing. They spend far more quality time together than Tom and the bride-to-be. It’s just kinda creepy, that’s all. Also, the “jazz” music Tom plays is really awful. I like Lou Reed as the tugboat captain, though.


  16. M "Sqeaky Sqeaky Sqeuaky Squeaky" Sipher says:

    It was all worth it for “Sessions presents: Faces of Death!”

    And no mention of Crow’s filthy “creaking bedsprings” sound effect?


  17. magicvoice says:

    I like the riffs where Crow does the little Sandy voice. “Sandy do this, Sandy do that! Maybe I should wash the car.”


  18. Jeff McM says:

    I remember this episode because it was on TV the same weekend that Joel and other cast members were in my hometown, Denver, for a sci-fi convention. Memories…


  19. Moltar says:

    Tormented, certainly not a good film, but it was easily one of the best ever on 3k


  20. Fred P says:

    I was always bothered by the fact that Tom didn’t kill her, sure he didn’t try to help her it was a lucky, convenient accident. So I never figured out why he was so tormented. I was creeped out by the whole movie and I couldn’t figure out why he didn’t just tell the boat captain he’d never seen her, tell my fiance whatever you want I never saw her, I’m not sure what she wanted with me. I guess we wouldn’t have had a movie then and he wouldn’t have been tempted to lob Sandy off of the lighthouse. If I want to watch a better riffed movie with a lighthouse give me Steve Alamo and “Wild Rebels” anytime.


  21. Lynnette says:

    Richard Carlson, who played Tom, was creepy all the way around. He was way too old to be cast as the young woman’s fiance. She was supposed to be about 18 or 20, and he was what, like 45? Gross.


  22. Lynnette says:

    All things considered, though, I thought the parts with the blind woman and her dog were pretty funny.


  23. Shenny says:

    Sampo, how could you fail to mention how, in the opening when Tom falls from the air duct, he lands and bounces to the left but Joel helps him up on the right? I mean, we all know how it works, but it’s still one of those things they should’ve done another take of.


  24. Bob says:

    I genuinely like this episode a lot in spite of the somewhat odd choice of film for the show. The fact that the movie’s story is rather dark is offset by the fact that it’s also a goofy ghost story of sorts, so I never get involved enough in the film to be upset by it or stop laughing at the jokes from the MST3K crew.

    The seemingly deliberate ambiguity in the film as to whether or not there really is a ghost or is the whole haunting thing just Tom’s conscience getting to him is a bit silly, but kind of fun because of that. It’s hardly The Telltale Heart in the writing department, but the acting is respectable. The floating ghost head of Vi wouldn’t scared a small child, which lightens the tone of the film quite a bit for me.

    I enjoyed the “Sessions Presents” direct response record offer jokes. It also makes me laugh every time I even think of the “Tom Stewart killed me, Tom Stewart killed me” litany chanted by Vi’s ghost throughout the film.


  25. BebopKate says:

    Regarding the “Joel in the air vent” segment: Those of you with the now sadly out-of-print scrapbook tape can fast-forward to the end photo montage for an answer to this one. During the season four shots, there’s a quick one of Joel in some kind of harness rigged up above the set.

    A related note: I believe this is the first episode with Joel’s short-legged jumpsuit, though it could just the first one where we really notice it. Did they ever explain the reason the jumpsuit suddenly went knee-length?


  26. zaxxon25 says:

    One of the Sessions presents riffs pairs mis-identifies an artist with a song …

    also, good call on the squeaky bedsprings Sipher


  27. Devastation Bob says:

    I watched this episode on one of my friend’s vhs tapes while I was catsitting for them, and I was actually a little freaked out by it (the cats were unimpressed). Has one of our favorite lines to quote though, when the guy picks up the little girl and I think it’s Joel that says, “Put her down Jerry Lee.”


  28. somebody says:

    This is one of the dreariest and depressing little soap opera movies I ever seen.

    The gang do make it watch-able with the quips.

    A couple of question I have for this movie is why did Tom Stewart wait until a week before the wedding breaking up with VI, and also what is the point of trying to blackmail him in the first place? It would be his word against hers she can’t really prove anything except that she is a jealous nut case.


  29. Chris E. says:

    This episode is a great favorite of mine. I prefer the movies that are shot through with goofiness yet try to take themselves seriously (see also It Conquered the World and I Accuse My Parents). To be honest, I think those types of movies make for better bot-fodder than the obvious kiddie-fare (like the Japanese imports) or the ones where the filmmakers obviously Just Didn’t Care.


  30. fishbulb says:

    Oh, boy, do I love this episode. A terrible movie, in a very offbeat style for MST3K.
    For those who are confused about why Tom is Tormented, it’s precisely because he didn’t try to save Vi. The irony is that even though he didn’t kill Vi, his guilt drives him to actually kill in the end. If you think you wouldn’t be bothered by failing to save someone you could have saved, remind me never to go to the top of a lighthouse with you.
    Not that the movie makes any sense, mind you.

    All the scenes with the little girl after she finds out what Tom has done are extremely creepy, much more so than the usual MST3K fare.


  31. Kenneth Morgan says:

    I agree that the whole thing of the little girl confronting Tom is rather disturbing. Still, the riffs in the scene were good (“Anything happens to me and the D.A. gets my lunchbox.”).


  32. The Bolem says:

    I was surprised at the MST3K hour bumpers being extras on the DVD, since a local station showed the syndicated MST3K hour, but I never saw this one.

    Perhaps what I love most is how this movie almost makes it to the end without featuring something…well…BIG, like Bert I. Gordon’s initials, and then Vi rears her ginormous head at the last minute, continuing the streak.
    Did Gordon do any movies that weren’t about unusually large things, like dinosaurs or enlarged peoples/animals?


  33. Sean74 says:

    You know what I find funny about this week’s episode discussion? It’s that all of these people are talking about what the MEANING of this movie was! “Taut” thriller or ghost story? I got an answer for you: it’s one of many lousy Bert I Gordon movies these guys endured.

    Having said that, I gave this five stars because I think it’s the kind of movie tailor-made for MST3K. I don’t buy into the whole “dark” argument some have mentioned; “Sidehackers”, “Hell Cats”, “The Unearthly” and “The Atomic Brain” are just some of the experiments that had “dark” elements to them as well, so it’s not as though it’s unprecedented on the show. Yes, the relationship between Tom and Sandy is odd, and the fact that there’s an indication that Tom might have killed Sandy is disturbing, but the scenes leading up to that point are pretty goofy and give J&TB plenty to work with.

    I love the repeated “Sessions” references, and I would have added dozens more pop acts to the ones thrown off during the “lighthouse” host segment.

    I will say this…”Tormented” is one of BIG’s better movies done on MST3K. There were some interesting moments: at Tom & Meg’s wedding, the flowers suddenly welting and the pastor’s book flipping to a funeral scripture were actually pretty cool. I also liked the ending, where Vi and Tom are found on the beach in each other’s arms and Vi wearing a vindictive yet vindicated smile on her face.

    As for the treatment itself…simply put, it’s one of their best.


  34. baroquejen says:

    I must put in a kind word for this film! Tormented, while not good by any stretch of the imagination, intentionally made me feel something (creeped out) and that is a lot more than most MST3K movies do. In fact, most of them made me feel creeped out unintentionally. It is visually interesting and the quality of the film is light years beyond most of what we normally see.

    Regarding the plot, though the haunting itself is confused and never really explained, the root of the plot (Tom’s descent into madness) is one of the oldest plot devices in the book for a reason. It is damned effective. Most of us at one time or another have been involved in something that started small and snowballed out of control, and so there is a real depth and universal feeling to this story that I just don’t find with most of the other ones that they have done.

    Finally, I find myself actually somewhat charmed by a few of the scenes, including the one where Sandy plays Chopsticks at the piano and Tom starts to accompany her while they talk. I also was genuinely creeped out by that scene where the record starts, he moves it, and then the record moves back and starts again while his back is turned. Kind of Poltergeistian…



  35. Darthdemona says:

    I agree with Crow that Joel has nice calves.


  36. Yipe Striper says:

    for some reason I watched this episode a lot in college… on my top 20 list… maybe even top ten…

    i just love it.


  37. losingmydignity says:

    I didn’t much care for this ep on the first viewing. But on a second go through I was pretty charmed, as I am charmed by all things dark combined with great humor (In contrast to everyone else, I think this movie is “cute” but then I thought Henry Portrait of Serial Killer was a comedy).
    Some of my favorite riffs involve Sandy, especially in the cafe scene.
    Did they throw Eric Clapton off the lighthouse in the host seg? Well, they should have thrown Clapton off the lighthouse. (Now, that’s dark).
    A solid B+ ep.


  38. losingmydignity says:

    And oh, yeah, has anyone ever watched this one Unmsted? Well, I haven’t, but I did come across this on youtube. A rare instance, I think, where a bit from a film is actually FUNNIER without the riffing (compare to the msted version and see if you agree). I laughed and laughed at this the first time I watched it.


  39. Sean74 says:

    To baroquejen: no offense, but I think you read way too much into this movie!


  40. Spector says:

    Didn’t like this one at all. Sure, it’s a cheesy horror film but it was nevertheless quite dark, and as the lead continues to be haunted by his dead lover and plunges further into madness this thing takes a real dark turn when it seems Tom is going to kill the young sister of his fiancee. Just couldn’t get into the humor in this one. Again, not the fault of the Brains, they tried their best.

    It’s one thing when they riff a poorly made, badly acted horror film because you have no sympathy or feelings of any kind (other than disdain) for the characters, but this movie was a Grade B ghost story, had good production values, decent acting and plot (for a Grade B ghost story). The riffing just doesn’t work in this one. Not a favorite.


  41. rockyjones says:

    A surprisingly solid episode, considering that there’s very little about the movie that’s enjoyable. Agreeably, though, one of BIG’s more valiant efforts, production-quality-wise.

    Until now, I had never made the connection that Susan Gordon was Bert I.’s daughter. Actually, she’s a pretty good little actress, compared to a lot of the other child actors of that era. If it weren’t for Sandy and the blind landlady, there would be absolutely NO likeable characters anywhere to be found in this flick. Tom’s just a big mess, and all of the other adult female characters are such whiney, shrill-voiced shrews, that only the most hopelessly masochistic of males would willingly be wed to them.

    Love the “Sessions Presents” stuff…just count me as another one who is swept back to the summertime afternoon TV of their childhood with each one of those bits.

    Fave riff: “Tom, I brought you some honey”…..(Servo: “or it might be motor oil”)


  42. rockyjones says:

    And…WHO wrote that hideous excuse for jazz piano music…..Albert Glasser?


  43. Loran Alan Davis says:

    Albert Glasser did not compose the piano jazz music. Another composer wrote the piano jazz while Glasser did the rest of the score.

    I am surprised that nobody caught the goof in the “Ring of Terror” callback. The bots say “Charles Moffet” when it should have been “Lewis Moffet.”


  44. Dan in WI says:

    In reviewing the comments from four years ago, it stands out how much time was spent on actually discussing some of the nuance of the movie. Mainly that was debating if it is a ghost story or a ghost story or a psychological thriller. That rarely happens with MST movies. That right there tells me that it probably one of the best stories of any MST movie. There are actually fine points to so warrant such a debate. Remember we are talking about a bar that is pretty low here, but it probably still is one of the best.

    Wow Dr. Forrester got a gift certificate for a free curtain cleaning! Frank does a good job selling the drinking jacket.

    Am I the only one who feels a little cheated we didn’t see Joel fall to his death during the first host segment?

    Check out the way Joel tosses Tom Servo to his seat after the second host segment. It looks effortless as if Servo weighs almost nothing.

    You know what was missing from this episode? Mike Nelson should have made an appearance as the tugboat pilot. It seems like something he would have done really well.

    That’s a nice touch using the lighthouse prop from the second host segment in the MST Hour wraps for part two.

    Favorite Riffs:
    Vi falls to her death. Crow “Miss Johnson, send in another fiancé.”

    Tom Stewart notices the extra set of footprints on the beach while holding Meg. Joel “Wait a minute, were you just walking on all fours?”

    Mrs. Ellis “If anyone was to ask me seriously I’d have to say no.” Crow “What if I asked you dressed in a clown suit?”

    The ghost of Vi appears. Joel “Help me Obi-Wan you’re my last hope.”

    Tom Stewart “There’s Coke in the refrigerator. Help yourself.” Tom Servo “and there’s a mirror on the table. And a razor blade.”


  45. robot rump! says:

    Honestly, this would have been a better movie if the Notorious B.I.G. had kept it with a guilt ridden Tom just imagining he sees and hears Vi because of his lack of enthusiasm when it came to saving her until at last he goes mental and does a nosedive off the lighthouse. But no, he has to go and open up a door to a hoary netherworld full of seaweed and blackmailing hepcat milkmen. Oh well. The bits with the seeing eye dog are always a winner. Unfortunatly along comes poor little Sandy expressing her affection for Tom who reciprocates while planning to marry her sister who is herself half Tom’s age, leaving me with one thought…Shame on YOU Bert I. Gordon.


  46. dsman71 says:

    Joel’s Calves, hmmmm
    Actually this is clearly a different jumpsuit than his other red one which didnt expose his calves.
    Good episode , a fun Bert I Gordon film. The woman Tom married was a babe ! :)
    Joels Hair ( shorter again)
    Joels Knees um
    Joels……..CALVES !!
    Joels Jumpsuit
    Sessions Presents ….Tormented therapy


  47. J Master says:

    I always thought they should’ve had a good Blade Runner joke somewhere in the scenes with Turkel. Maybe something about Tom crushing his skull for trying to blackmail him or something. Or go more obscure with replicant owls or something.
    Unlike some MST’d films where the blatantly obvious jokes are skipped over (look at all the Hackman riffs they might have done but didn’t for Marooned/Space Travelers), Turkel was not such a big actor that they couldn’t have thrown one in.


  48. Droppo says:

    I love this episode….just shy of 5 stars for me. If 4.75 was a rating, that’s what I’d go with.

    Is it wrong that I never tire of the “Sessions presents!” jokes?

    It likely is Bert I’s best…I actually kind of like the movie as ridiculous as Vi’s disembodied head is.


  49. Joseph Nebus says:

    You know, this movie seems one of the rare set where I could actually picture this thing happening. I mean, I can picture a guy failing to save someone, under circumstances where he probably could, and trying to cover up his involvement since it could look like murder easily, and being, er, tormented, at least by his own sense of guilt, until it comes to a fresh horrible ending.

    Most movies start with a plainly absurd idea, like pickles from Venus, or just involve so much nonsense or so few people, that it’s unsettling to come across a movie showing things which could plausibly happen to real people.


  50. 24HourWideAwakeNightmare says:

    That should have been “my only hope.” MST3K staff betray themselves as not quite total dorks here.

    “Tom Stewart killed me!”

    A nice obscure riff is when Tom starts to practice, the record player fires up, Servo remarks how he’s playing a Charles Ives piece. Ives sometimes emulated the sound of things like two marching bands meeting up in his dissonant works.

    “Modern Jazz music” courtesy of Calvin Jackson. He backed up a favorite singer of mine, Mildred Bailey. The stuff Tom cranks out or the music on the 78 is a bit more refined than Al Glasser’s screeching attempts at aping Billy May or Stan Kenton.


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